宇宙年表

在学习的过程中,我遇到了这些词:暴涨,核合成,中微子退耦,复合,光子退耦,再电离…
但是我不知道它们先后发生的顺序,所以花了一些时间整理了下表。由于包含很多尚未确定的物理,所以时间、温度和红移是大概或主流的。

chronology of the universe

Age Epoch Temperature Redshift Comment
0s Big Bang
Planck epoch
1E-43s 1E32K
Grand unification epoch Gravity separates.
1E-36s 1E28K
Electroweak epoch Strong nuclear force becomes distinct from electroweak forces.
1E-33s 1E27K
Inflation
1E-32s 1E22K Primordial density fluctuations arise.
Reheating Quark-gluon plasma
1E-12s 1E15K
Quark epoch Weak nuclear force separates.
Baryon to antibaryon constituencies are established.
1E-6s 1E12K
Hadron epoch Quarks combine to form hadrons.
Possible formation of primordial black holes.
Neutrinos decouple with electrons and positrons @~0.4s (1MeV).
1s 1E10K 4E9 Hadrons and anti-hadrons annihilate each other.
Lepton epoch The neutron to proton ratio freezes out.
Protons and neutrons stop converting @0.84MeV.
10s 3E9K 1E9
Photon epoch Leptons are no longer produced by collisions of photons.
200s 1E9K 3E8
Nucleosynthesis There are nucleosynthesis of light elements: ^{4}He, D,  ^{3}He, Li.
1200s 1E7K
The universe consists of a plasma of nuclei, electrons, and photons. Matter-radiation equality @z~3220
Helium recombination @z~2000
2E5yr 4000K 1500
Recombination Nuclei (protons) combine with electrons to create neutral (hydrogen) atoms.
3.8E5yr Photon decoupling 3000K 1100 Cosmic microwave background is formed.
Dark ages  
The first stars, dwarf galaxies and quasars gradually form. Earliest stars emerge  @z~70 (3E7yr)
Structure formation No observed luminous objects @z~1000~10
1E8yr 30K 11
Reionization  8.8 Neutral hydrogen atoms split back into a plasma of free electrons and protons.
1E9yr 19K 7
Modern galaxies is formed.

star-formation peak@z~1.9

Matter-Dark energy equality@z~0.3

1.38E10yr Present time 2.7K 0

 

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